287 - 212 BCE- Archimedes is one of the most famous scientists of all time. Archimedes was a native of Syracuse. He is renowned for many inventions and contributions. His contributions include work on the geometry of spheres and cylinders, a value for the constant pi, the concept of specific gravity, and the science of hydrostatics. Archimedes also probably invented the Archimedian screw to pump water, and the compound pulley. Archimedes is also noted for having been a proponent of the importance of the use of levers to do work.