63 BCE- 14 CE - Augustus was a special title awarded to Octavian, Caesar's heir, adopted son, and grandnephew. Augustus signified "the revered one." Augustus ruled Rome in concert with Caesar's close ally, Mark Antony. The regime is known to have meted out revenge against Caesar's assassins, including Cicero. The political alliance between Antony, Augustus, and Marcus Lepidus is known to historians as the "Second Triumvirate," and was recognized in Roman law with legal authority to rule. Nonetheless, cooperation wouldn't last long, since Antony and Octavian would later struggle for ultimate rule of the Roman world, see Battle of Actium. After the power struggle at Actium, Octavian was left as the exclusive ruler over a Roman empire, and as much as any other event this signified the end of the Roman republic.