521 - 486 BCE- The Great King of Persia who was able to emerge as king after a year of civil war following the death of Cambyses, son of Cyrus the Great. Darius is regarded to have strengthened the Persian Empire, including building a canal from the Red Sea and the Mediterranean. Darius was also responsible for expansion of Persia. Darius established a province in western India, and expanded Persia as far North as Macedonia. Darius was ruler during several uprisings, including those of the Greeks. Darius invaded the Greek mainland, leading to the eventual Athenian victory in the Battle of Marathon, 490 BCE.