North of the Arabian Peninsula, Modern day Iraq, Middle East- Greek: Literally "between two rivers." A region of land North of the Arabian Peninsula between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Mesopotamia is said to be one of the "cradles of civilization," since early agricultural settlements developed here. Specifically the civilization of Sumer began in the Southern region of Mesopotamia. Other civilizations that developed in Mesopotamia include Akkad, and Babylon. See Fertile Crescent.