Central Apennine Mountains, Mountain Range Bisecting Italy from North to South- A hill people of Central Italy, who, from 343- 290 BCE, waged war with the Romans. Finally, Rome defeated them and established a treaty with the Samnite states providing an expanded Roman Confederation and an alliance between the parties. In return, the Samnites provided Rome with military aid, and allowed Rome to control their foreign policy. On local issues, the Samnites remained relatively free to determine their own interests, laws, and government. The Roman conquest of the Samnites expanded Roman power and influence across much of Italy.